Build The Indonesian Future with Good Sanitation

Saturday, October 8, 2011

Build The Indonesian Future with Good Sanitation

Ones that made Indonesia famous in the eyes of the world is a about sanitary system. It might seem a bit cynical because of the popularity is well-known in how bad sanitary conditions in Indonesia. The world record that Indonesia remains in ranked fifth worst sanitation worldwide. What a poor portrait of Indonesia's sanitation is.

Water supply and sanitation in Indonesia is characterized by poor levels of access and service quality. Over 100 million people in Indonesia lack access to safe water and more than 70 percent of the country’s 220 million population relies on water obtained from potentially contaminated sources. With only 2% access to sewerage in urban areas is one of the lowest in the world among middle-income countries. Pollution is widespread on Bali and Java. Women in Jakarta report spending US$ 11 per month on boiling water, implying a significant burden for the poor.

Direct Impact of decayed sanitary to Indonesia is  : 
  • Unreliable facilities and poor hygiene behaviors have made an impact on infant mortality, morbidity, and malnutrition in children that a major threat to the human resource potential of Indonesia. About 100 thousand children die every year in Indonesia.
  • Poor sanitary conditions have prevented the national productivity. Indonesian economic potential loss of 2.4 per cent of Barto domestic product due to poor sanitary conditions. Every family has lost about 120 thousand monthly income.
  • With proper sanitation increases the rate of potential economic growth WHO studies show that investments in sanitation of us $ 1 will achive the rate of economic return (profit) between USD 8 - USD 21 for developing countries, including Indonesia.
Pooping Habit

This is related to the productivity of its inhabitants that are often troubled by disease due to the poor sanitation in the Community system. Good sanitation system can not only boost the economy through better preserved of the nation's public health, the improvement of the quality of the environment through good and fair waste management , as well as the management of wastewater.

Nevertheless, a small amount of town in Indonesia, which has good sewage system. Sanitation in the form of a centralized system of water purification or disable sanitaion site only in 11 cities across Indonesia,  and only could served until 2.33% . While the local management of wastewater or on-site sanitation sanitation in Indonesia still dominate achievements 71.06% that normally only in the form of septic tanks that do not meet all standards.

Water and Sanitation Needs

A total of 76.2 per cent of 52 rivers in Java, Sumatra, Bali and Sulawesi is heavily contaminated by organic pollutants. Most rivers are located in densely populated cities, as in Java tend to be infected with bacteria Escherichia coli and faecal coli, the bacteria that causes diarrhea. Unrarely the dirty river ,  mixed with various waste is still used by the people as toilets needs for people who live in such complex areas with limitted water supply . The proplem become more complex while the information received by the people oftenly did not attach importance to the issue of sanitation, causes diarrhoea accident so that public knowledge of sanitation  remains low. These conditions led to low public awareness about the importance of sanitation in support their health.

The fact the eyes of the world has focused on global development  through courses MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) in which one issue is concerned about  Ensure Environmental Sustainability, where a program of sanitation and clean water issues become the focal point of which eludes attention around the world. This shows how important sanitation problems for the future development of the world. Formally , Indonesia has stated its commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In order to do so, an estimated 78 million more people will require improved water supply and 73 million improved sanitation services between 2000 and 2015, not to mention necessary improvements in service quality for those already shown as having access. Current levels of investment of only US$2 per capita and year are insufficient to attain the MDGs. Furthermore, policy responsibilities are fragmented between different Ministries and local utilities that operate and maintain urban water systems remain weak.

Data on access to water and sanitation in Indonesia vary significantly depending on the source consulted and the definition of access. According to the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation by WHO and UNICEF  access to an improved water source stood at 80% and access to improved sanitation at 52% in 2008. However, according to Indonesia's 2004 socio-economic survey (SUSENAS) only about 47% of the population has access to water from improved sources considered relatively safe. That includes 42% of the urban and 51% of the rural population. In the 8 years from 1994 to 2002, this figure increased by only 10% in rural areas and 9% in urban areas. At this rate, by 2015, only about 56% of the rural population can be expected to gain access to an improved water sources, when the MDG target for the whole country is 73%

More than 40% of rural households use unsanitary open pits or defecate in fields, beaches and water bodies. According to the World Bank, urban sanitation is the least well addressed of major policy issues in Indonesia. Poor sanitation in cities and small towns is posing health hazards through pollution of both ground and surface water sources used by urban populations for a variety of purposes. Disposal and treatment of sewage is available for less than 2% of the population

Furthermore, in order to enhance the understanding and the acceleration of advances in sanitation we need to give special attention to issues concerning:
  • Healthy Behaviors.
  • Sanitation Facilities.
  • Water Quality.
  • Waste Management.
  • Urban Drainage System.
  • Policy and Institutional Framework.
  • National Sanitary Information System

Hopefully, this program will prevent as a warning or a wake up call for Indonesia to prepare the people's awareness and concern in preserving the environment through good sanitation system. Remind them understanding that hygine culture is not detrimental to their lives but instead will born the healthy and intelligent next generation  in the future.

Indeed, it takes time and hard work of all parties to resolve the issue. The Indonesian government must actively to campaign on the use of clean water  efficiently and effectivelly, teaching people to preserve and appreciate the use of large amounts of clean water increasingly out of balance with population growth. Urging people to involve in waste management and hygiene sanitation system. Changing the mindset and lifestyle of the community is fundamental to start fixing this situation, not only to build clean water and other sanitation facilities. Hopefully in a community-based sanitation systems are able to improve future grim portrait of sanitation systems in Indonesia.

No comments:

Post a Comment