Sanitary Landfill, Waste Management System with Environmentally Orientation

Friday, April 15, 2011

Sanitary Landfill, Waste Management System with Environmentally Orientation

The interpretation of sanitary landfill is currently a popular word in the waste management system with  sustainable and environmentally orientation. What is Sanitary Landfill? Before exploring the answer, I'd like to say that this  article will discuss about the definition of sanitary landfills, what connection with the waste management system, and appropriate instructions for the build / design of Sanitary Landfill both based ulititas and site selection.
 Site Preparation for Sanitary Landfill
Sanitary Landfill

Sanitary Landfill sites where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe. It is considered when it has completely degraded biologically, chemically and physically. In high-income countries, the level of isolation achieved may be high. However, such an expensive high level of isolation may not be technically necessary to protect public health. Four basic conditions should be met before a site can be regarded as a sanitary landfill (see following.) The ways of doing this should be adapted to local conditions. The immediate goal is to meet, to the best extent possible, the four stated basic sanitary landfill conditions, with a longer term goal to meet them eventually in full. That is why Sanitary Landfill known as reliable waste management system and environmentally orientation.

Small incremental improvements in landfill design and operation over several years are more likely to succeed than attempts to make a single, large leap in engineering expectations.
Large landfills will require more investment to improve standards than smaller sites. However, the unit cost of these improvements (measured per tonne of waste landfilled or per head of population served) will decrease with increasing site size. There are financial and other benefits to sites with long operating lifetimes (ten years or more). Large regional sites serving two or more cities could be economically beneficial, providing waste transport costs are not too high.

Modern Sanitary Landfill  in Cross

Sanitary Landfill in cross
Basic requirements
As a minimum, four basic conditions should be met by any site design and operation before it can be regarded as a sanitary landfill:
• Full or partial hydrogeological isolation: if a site cannot be located on land which naturally contains leachate security, additional lining materials should be brought to the site to reduce leakage from the base of the site (leachate) and help reduce contamination of groundwater and surrounding soil. If a liner - soil or synthetic - is provided without a system of leachate collection, all leachate will eventually reach the surrounding environment. Leachate collection and treatment must be stressed as a basic requirement.
• Formal engineering preparations: designs should be developed from local geological and hydrogeological investigations. A waste disposal plan and a final restoration plan should also be developed.
• Permanent control: trained staff should be based at the landfill to supervise site preparation and construction, the depositing of waste and the regular operation and maintenance.
• Planned waste emplacement and covering: waste should be spread in layers and compacted. A small working area which is covered daily helps make the waste less accessible to pests and vermin.

This system should have applied 3R methode (Reduce, Reuse, Recycyling), using Sanitary Landfill Technology. This technology integrates the integrated waste management. Waste is recycled and used in compost, and residue / residual waste disposed to destruction. Sanitary Landfill is a high technology, investing only about USD 100-200 perton. While operating costs reach USD 100-300 per ton. The technology found in Indonesia are still scarce, attention because of the waste problem has not become a government priority.
The main components of any secured, permitted landfill are: 

Another Sanitary Landfill Method

Bottom liner — The bottom liner separates and prevents the buried waste from coming in contact with underlying natural soils and groundwater. In Municipal Solid Waste landfills, the bottom liners are generally constructed using some type of durable, puncture-resistant synthetic plastic HDPE (High Density
Polyethylene) ranging from 30 to 100 mils thick. The plastic liners may also be designed with a combination of compacted clay soils, along with synthetic plastic.

Cells (old and new) — This is the area in a landfill that has been constructed and approve for disposal of waste. These cells range in size (depending upon total tons of waste received each day at the landfill) from a few acres to as large as 20+ acres. Inside these larger cells are smaller cells known as the daily workface, or sometimes referred to as cells. This is where the waste coming into the landfill for disposal that day is prepared by placing the material in layers or lifts where the waste is then compacted and shredded by heavy landfill compaction machinery.

Leachate collection system — The bottom of each landfill is typically designed so that the bottom surface of the landfill is sloped to a low point, called a sump. This is where any liquids that are trapped inside the landfill — known in the waste industry as leachate — are collected and removed from the landfill. The leachate collection system typically consists of a series of perforated pipes, gravel packs and a layer of sand or gravel placed in the bottom of the landfill. Once the leachate is removed from the sump, it is typically pumped or gravity-flowed to a holding tank or pond, where it is either treated on site or hauled off site to a public or private wastewater treatment facility.

Storm water drainage — This is an engineered system designed to control water runoff during rain or storm events. This is done by directing the runoff through a series of berms or ditches to holding areas known as sed ponds. In these ponds the runoff water flow is slowed down or held long enough to allow the suspended soil particles to settle out before the water is discharged off site.
Methane collection system — Bacteria in the landfill break down the trash in the absence of oxygen. This process produces landfill gas, which is approximately 50 percent methane. Since methane gas has the potential to burn or explode, it has to be removed from the landfill. To do this, a series of pipes are embedded within the landfill to collect the methane gas. This gas, once collected, can be either naturally vented or control-burned.

Cover (or cap) — Waste that is placed in a cell is required to be covered daily with either six inches of compacted soil or an alternative daily cover. Some examples of alternative daily covers are the application of spray-on cover material, such as foam or a flame-retardant fiber material. Another type of alternative daily cover is large panels of tarpaulin-type material that is laid over the waste at the end of each day and removed the next day before waste is placed. Other areas within the cells that are not to final grade and will not receive placement of additional waste for a period of time may require additional cover. This is known as intermediate cover — generally 12 to 18 inches of soil. Covering (or capping) is performed in order to isolate the waste from exposure to the air, pests (such as birds, rats and mice) and to control odors. When a section of the landfill is finished or filled to capacity, it is permanently covered with a combination of a layer of polyethylene plastic, compacted soil and a layer of topsoil that will support growth of vegetation to prevent erosion.

Groundwater monitoring stations — Stations are set up to directly access and test the groundwater around the landfill for presence of leachate chemicals. Typically a groundwater monitoring system will have a series of wells that are located up-gradient of the landfill disposal area and a series of wells down-gradient. The up-gradient wells test the water quality before it moves under the disposal area in order to get a background analysis of the water. The down-gradient wells then allow testing of the water after it has passed under the disposal area so it can be compared to the quality of the up-gradient wells to make sure there has been no impact or contamination of the groundwater.

Landfill can now be designed with a geosynthetic liner to replace or back up a soil liner someone might feel that a landfill could be sited anywhere. While new technologies can increase the technical acceptability of some potential landfill sites, there are a variety of factors that must be assessed when determining site acceptability. Sound technology alone will be an insufficient basis on which to evaluate and compare alI potential sites.

There are many other factors to consider, including public opinion, health and safety, hauling distance, accessibility, climate, drainage, zoning and hand use, and economics. No matter how technically sound a facility design appears to be, there will no doubt be public interest and even hostility that must be addressed in the site evaluation process. This lesson will provide a procedure for evaluating potential sites and seeking public input. Possibilities for potential sanitary landfill sites are:
  • A site in an area zoned for industry.
  • A site that serves a region of several communities and is located some distance from residential development;
  • A site that would have economic or aesthetic value if filled with solid wastes and then landscaped (e.g., an area previously excavated):
  • A site that, after construction of an above-ground landfill, can be put to recreational use (such as a ski hill)

Modern Sanitary Landfill Work System in Cross
An ideal l sanitary landfill will have the following properties: Conforms with land use planning of the area:
  1. Is easily accessible iii any weather to vehicles expected during the operation of the landfill
  2. Has safeguards against potential surface and groundwater pollution;
  3. Has safeguards against uncontrolled gas movement originating from the disposed solid waste;
  4. Has an adequate quantity of earth cover material that is easily handled and compacted:
  5. Will be located in an area where the landfill's operation will not detrimentally impact environmentally sensitive resources;
  6. Will be large enough to accommodate the community wastes for a reasonable time interval
  7. Will be the most economic site available commensurate with the ultimate requirements for solid waste disposal.


In Indonesia the latest regulation to maintain waste management system is UU No. 18 , 2008. That nowdays the responsibility to maintain waste management system beside government, society and private sectore are involved.  This laws also declared that The Sanitary Landfill system is the most waste management system that has both environmentally orientation and sustainable and should apply  by 2012.  

Government  in charge of ensuring the implementation of a sound waste management and environmentally sound in accordance with this regulation. Waste reduction referred to this regulation  covers the following activities: a) restrictions on waste generation; b) recycling of waste and / or c) reuse of waste.

Waste handling activities  includes: a) separation in the form of grouping and separation of waste in accordance with the number, type, and / or nature of the waste; b)collection in the form of garbage collection and disposal of garbage into the source of temporary shelters or places of integrated waste management; c.)transportation in the form of carrying waste from the source and / or from the temporary shelters or waste from waste treatment are integrated into the final processing site; d) processing in the form of changing the characteristics, composition, and the amount of waste and / or e) final waste treatment in the form of waste recovery and / or residue from processed prior to the media in a safe environment.

  1. inserting garbage into the territory of the Republic of Indonesia;
  2. import of waste; 
  3. mix the waste with hazardous and toxic wastes; 
  4. manage the waste that causes pollution and / or destruction of the environment; 
  5. do not throw trash in places that have been determined and provided;
  6. handling of waste by open dumping at the final processing and / or 
  7. burn garbage that does not comply with technical requirements for waste management.

Public involvement in the process

As a landfill developer begins the process of searching for a new landfill site, the question arises as to when to make the search process public. Since public knowledge invites public interest and often public opposition, many developers try to keep decisions secret until a final choice is made, In addition to the fear of public opposition, prices for land and soils, as well as other economic factors, can be affected if the public knows a site is being sought.

While it may be basic human nature to avoid controversy as long as possible, many now feel that waiting until a final site is chosen, known as a "decide-announce-defend" policy, leads to maximum public opposition. The opposition is generated because neighbors and others feel a decision affecting their interests has been made without their input, leaving them frustrated and angry. Hiring lawyers to fight is often the result.

Others recommend getting the public involved early in the process. This approach uses the search process to educate the public about the difficult choices that must be made and about the degree of effort and expertise that the developer is applying to make a reasonable decision. The policy forces the involved public to help make decisions from among available alternatives. A description of this approach, called the issue evolution/educational intervention model.

Obviously, this approach is not trouble free. Working with the public during the search process is time-consuming and difficult. Some interested participants in the process may be totally negative or may attempt to play neighbors near one site against neighbors at another. Since some public involvement in siting is usually mandated by state or local regulations, the developer must devise an approach that results in increased public support for the landfill project. This will be a formidable task.

Site Selection
Proper landfill site selection is the fundamental step in sound waste disposal and the protection
of the environment, public health and quality of life.
Proper landfill site selection determines many of the subsequent steps in the landfill process, which, if properly implemented, should ensure against nuisances and adverse long-term effects. For example, a well-selected landfill site will generally facilitate an uncomplicated design and provide ample cover material, which would facilitate an environmentally and publicly acceptable
operation at a reasonable cost.

The criteria involved in landfill site selection include environmental, economic and sociopolitical criteria, some of which may conflict. With increased environmental awareness, new legislation and certain other developments over time, the landfill site selection process has become much more sophisticated, as new procedures and tools have been developed.

Early considerations in the technical process are the size (land area) and the strategic location of the proposed site, to ensure that the facility meets the disposal need. While the size depends on the waste stream over the predicted site life and provision for sufficient buffer zones, strategic location is determined by the waste generation areas to be served and transport routes. It is economically sound practice to establish the proposed facility as close to the generation areas as possible, with a view to minimising transport costs. Often an “economic radius” is determined, based on the existing or proposed mode of waste transport. This will define the initial area of investigation.

Once all the candidate sites have been identified, they must all be compared and technically evaluated. Unsuitable sites must be eliminated and the best sites must be short listed for further consideration. The short listed sites are then ranked in order of suitability. The ranking process is, however, controversial and is often open to criticism because it may be seen as subjective, which in some instances is the case.

The top-ranking site is then subjected to a more detailed investigation by means of a Feasibility Study, to confirm that it has no Fatal Flaws and is environmentally and publicly acceptable. The Feasibility Study may comprise many administrative and technical aspects, which depend on local legislation. It should, however, include a preliminary Geohydrological Investigation, as well as a preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). If Fatal Flaws emerge in the investigations the site is discarded and the next best site is investigated. Otherwise, a conceptual design is drawn up, which addresses any critical factors associated with the site, and this, together with the investigation results, is submitted to the authorities and usually to the

Fulfilling land use goals

Potential sites must be la areas that are suitable for landfill. development. operation and end use of a landfill site should also conform to long-term land use goals. Most areas have projected land-use plans for 10 to 20 years. la the absence of land-use maps, air photographs can be used to assess current land-use patterns.
Industrial areas may seem suitable for a landfill site, since heavy equipment is required and significant traffic is generated. However, the landfill may not be compatible with industrial operations when completed. 

Differential settlement within the finished site may limit its use as support for buildings years after completion.
If properly designed and operated, a completed landfill could be used as an industrial site, but most often, completed landfills are used as open space or recreational areas.

Areas with habitats of endangered plant or animal species, virgin timber land, wildlife corridors, unique physical features, and historical and are archaeologic sites should be avoided in locating a landfill facility. The development of a landfill in one of these areas may result in a detrimental impact which from an overall viewpoint outweighs the benefits of a successfully operated landfill.

Thus, The article I am submitting base on the sum of my knowledge and a variety of sources that I have collected. Hopefully our efforts and good intentions we have in order to protect the environment through effective waste management that environmentally orientation can be perceived benefits for next generations.


  1. thanks 4 the interesting info about landfill...

  2. you are very welcome ^_^, thanks also for visiting my blog.