Learning The Green Openspaces Management from Singapore

Sunday, December 4, 2011

Learning The Green Openspaces Management from Singapore

Oftenly we heard, that world development focussed on sustainable development with environmentally vision. Sustainable development of a city , nowdays well - known as eco city where city designed with consideration of environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimization of required inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air and water pollution.

One concept that support the goal  is to hold Green Openspaces movement proportionally. Definitivelly the concept of Green   Openspaces is a region or area of the land that dominated by plants which built for specific function as habitat protection in a city, the network infrastructure, safeguards and agricultural cultivation in addition to improve the quality of the atmosphere, water and land to support sustainability of development. Green Openspaces in the midst of the urban ecosystem also serves to improve the quality of city landscape.

A number of acreage in urban areas in recent decades, where public spaces have been eliminated due to building developments which are likely to be pattern as container ( container development) which development entirelly  accomodate a wide range of socioeconomic activity such as Malls, Offices, Hotels etc that potentially creating a gap between different walks of life. Only certain people on middle class category supported by those places.

The ideal Green Openspaces is about 30% of the total area. But unfortunately most of large cities in Indonesia only reached 10% of city area. In fact Green Openspaces necessary for health, child's play ground, sport area and public communication.  The design has to be fit with national standard or existing standards.

Tha Land Policy in urban areas which is in line with the environmental aspecst, is the continuity of the Green Openspaces. It has function as hidro-orologis where esthetics value should be functioned as interact media among the people of the city. The gardens in the city became a vehicle for communication activities for families, leisure, sporsts and more. Thus, how important the function of Green Openspaces is, every aspects including government and all citizen  should concern to keep it's existance from the contra desires to change it's existance.

One of the neighbour country whic already apply the construciton concept of eco city with proportional green openspaces is Singapore. Singapore is very serious , proffesional and consistent in implementing sustainable development with environmental vision. Through The Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) and The Singapore National Parks (NPArks) develop masterplan of Green Openspaces (The Parks and Waterbodies Plan). The composition consists of 19% for Green Openspaces, 17% for Offoces, 15% for infrastructure, 12% for housing, and 37% for others (pastures ).

The Singapore Government also requires standar  0,4 hectares of Green Openspaces  for every 1.000 people in the housing/area. A Park should cover an area of  1,5 hectares each block apartments/hotels, or cover 10 hectares in every distric level.  The coefficients of basic green should 60% in every apartments/condo complexes/hotels/housing.

Dhoby Ghaut Green OpenSpaces, Singapore

The Area for Green Openspaces reach 9.053,7 hectares consist of :  1.763 hectares for city parks, 2.979 hectares for city forest, 2.390 hectares for green line, 1.871 hectares for reserves area, 42 hectares for park in parliamentarybbuilding and government building reach 8,7 hectares.  (NParks Board Annual Report, 2002/2003).

In order to ensure legal certainty, the implementation of the green openspaces master plan  supported by The National Parks Act and The Park and Trees Act that concern the planning of the green openspaces, tree planting, maintenance the green openspaces,  mature tree protection, processing and utilization of organic waste to trees, the progress report on the construction of green openspaces masterplan and improved the quality green openspaces.

Transparency and accountability are keys to the success of the green openspaces  management of  Singapore. On its annual report which made with very interesting concept  , full of photos, charts, and communicative tables , as well as  public can freely access, open, and free. We also can figure out a plan of green openspaces development program in long-term, intermediate, and short term. Shortcomings and successes which already achieved per year, the composition and current component of green openspaces progress, was reported in detail. In fact, since September 2002, the stakeholders have formed The Park Watch which aims at empowering communities in development and management of the green openspaces together and equally.

Actually most of  all  local authorities in Indonesia have a Spatial Plan Area (read : RTRW) a strategic plan (read :Renstra), and Government Agencies Performance Accountability Report (read :LAKIP)  that reported yearly. But unfortunatelly it is still in formality concept. There is no sinergy bounding between planning and implementation of green openspaces development activities program. It also oftently contra to  the mission and vision of green openspaces concept. Of course it opens up opportunities for action in corruption in this country.

Esplanade Park, Marina Bay Singapore

Green Botanical Garden Singapore

To ensure transparency and accountability of green openspaces management, the Government of Indonesia both Center  Government or Local Government should design a form of Green Openspaces Masterplan, Regional Regulation of Green Openspaces Management, and Green Openspaces Management Guidelines. If it is necessary  involve the independent institutions and stakeholders.

Telok Anyer, Green Garden Singapore

National Park Singapore

Awareness of the limited available land  make Singapore citizens willing to stay in the Government's localization home in order to have wider Park to play or exercise. The housing was designed very comfortable and equipped with advance technology, easy public transportation. The existence of  tax that paid by the community encourage normal demands in comfortable life and social well-being.

Park concept become an important matter because it is placed as selling power not only as cosmetic.  Locating The Green Openspaces Development in the city as top priorityon behalf of environment preservation is not a no risk thing. Singapore Government smartly located Green Openspaces as a part of selling value of their city, it makes all parties involved in it. No wonder if all the citizens will as two questions in searching place for living, that is : where the location  and how about the sorounding garden?

Singapore government own simple mission :  "When you are out of home, then you will be in a garden ". This mission interpreted in planning and execution of Green Openspaces Masterplan consistenly. That is why many gardens were built everywhere. Because of simply mission, it make people easily to follow up.  The very important concept we can learn from them is how to make the simply mission or  slogan.  Not necessary making the beautiful one or even pompous one. The simpliest the better, as long as it is easier to be understood by the citizen and easy to execute.

There are various reasons come from Singapore government in building the flats as their philosophy. The limited land area force them to carry out the efficiency in any concept of development.  Developing the vertical building impact to the land use  efficiency and providing reserve land for future and allotment for Green Openspaces.

Flats Developing saves people's living cost such as cost for cleanliness maintenance, waste processing, sanitation in public toilet, saving on consumption of water and electricity, as well as utilization of alternative energy innovation renewable ( wind and solar). Flats development also related to Defence Concept and security of the state. The existence of the flats cluster  and the avaiability of suffecient park area is intended to simplify the evacuation process of citizens if the cityhit by natural disasters such as floods and fires or more extreme was attacked by another country.

Healthy flat scenery, energy-efficient, eco-friendly, providing sanitation, circulation paths, and a clean environment  as it looked in the Bedok Estate, Bishan Estate, Kampung Melayu (Malay Village), village of Netherlands (Holland Village), or the area of Toa Payoh. It's no wonder if 86% people chose  living in flats, where 90% of its own

For example in the area of Bedok Estate, the gardens are provided for children's playground, sports facilities, space to interact socially, and footpaths, with interesting, innovative, and creative concept. The Park is dominated by large trees and a well-preserved stretch of grass. The Park is equipped with a fire hydrant pump to clean water as well as the fulfilment of the need to reserve a fire in the dry season. In the rainy season, the Park serves to absorb and hold the rain . The Park is also integrated with the underground MRT (Mass Rapid Transit)  station and bus stop.

The flat existences also supported by public transport system (MRT)  network very easily, cheaply, safely and very comfortably . Range of flats to the bus stop or underground stations are integrated within the Park are more than 100 meters. Layout of bus stop clinging to the side of the Park. Out goes to/from the underground station is also located in the middle of the park so that citizens can enjoy the beauty of the Park every time. The availability of the shady space encourages the majority of citizens willing to walk from flats to various destination comfortably and safely, in really beautiful, cool and fresh city environment. The pedestrian lines also connect each other.

After the City Hall formed shaded areas that connect each other , in  1980s increased making colorfull-area, such as along the road to Changi Airport to downtown. Now, entering the 21st century, Singapore Government developed the concept of vertical landscapes (skyrise greenery) initiated directly by Goh Chok Tong (2002), with a hanging Garden development oblige (roof garden) on the roofs of government buildings, hotels, apartments, up to flats.

Swirling Green Roof Tops at Nanyang Technology University, Singapore

Commitment and consistency of the implementation of physical city development should be balanced with green openspaces conservation strictly and disciplines in organize the city spaces. The success of mutualism symbiosist of ecological and economic values with greens openspaces' ecological value proved successful making Singapore as garden city. And also as commercial center services and tourist destination of the world.

We still have to learn from other countries to develope the state in advance. One thing that was felt difficult to apply in the country is realizing the sustainable development with environmentally orientation. Generally the new government is reluctant to continue what has been implemented by the earlier government so that the construction be no synergy. And due to the various interest of the various parties, government manage the development with very minimal environmental insight portion. Therefore we should leave the old paterns because the key to success lies in the development of healthy city. With a belief that build a healthy city will result a healthy community. Hopefully we will able to reach the better condition in no longer time. And all of us realize how important creating a healthy, clean and comfortable city to create good generation in future. Hopefully..

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